West Virginia Has At Least $3.83 Billion In Surpluses of the Taxpayers Money it is not using.

  FY 2003 Report Home Page Flags courtesy of Robesus Inc.



The State of West Virginia at the State-level has approximately $3.83 billion of the taxpayer's money it is not using, i. e. surpluses equal to $2,117 for every man, woman and child in West Virginia or $8,469 for a family of 4. This does not include all the additional surpluses that exist in the school districts, cities, or counties in West Virginia.

The Exhibit A below shows the results of the FY 2003 review.

What are these surpluses we refer to?

Government surpluses, as used in this report, are funds that are not required or needed for the operation of all government operations, funds, accounts, agencies, etc., directly or indirectly, for the year(s) covered by the budget which is usually one year. Theoretically, at the end of every fiscal year, governments should have little or no cash/investments on hand. But what we have found is that most governments have huge amounts of cash and investments on hand at the end of the fiscal year. And somehow these cash and investments are not being recycled back through the budget process the next year, but are being held year-after-year.

A Government Can Have a Budget Deficits/Shortfalls and Financial Surpluses At The Same Time.

This is the most deceiving topic that governments, politicians, and the news media have conveyed to the public about governmental financial matters. In realty, a government can simultaneously have a budget shortfall and a financial surplus of the taxpayers' money.

The problems are focused in four areas:

1. The budget only covers a small portion of the State's financial condition. There are a group of funds not part of the budget process. The complete list of funds and budgetary requirements are found in the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR). This report depicts the complete financial status of the State. The budget only covers a portion of the financial resources of the government.

A Little Background:

The CAFR usually has four categories.

Governmental Funds
Proprietary Funds
Fiduciary Funds
Component Units

Governmental Funds involve activities of the government including most basic services such as environmental resources, general government, transportation, education, health and human services, and protection of persons and property. Most of the cost of these activities are financed by taxes, fees , and federal grants.

Proprietary Funds are used when a government charges customers for the services it provides, whether to outside customers or to other agencies with the state. For example, Enterprise Funds, a component of proprietary funds, are for activities that provide goods and services to outside (non-government) customers, which includes the general public. Fees, charges for services or goods, assessments, fines, licenses, etc. are the major revenue sources.

Fiduciary Funds are activities in which the state acts as a trustee or fiduciary to hold resources for the benefit of others. These funds are pension trust funds, investment trusts, and agency funds (which are for assets held for distribution by the government as an agent for other governmental units, other organizations, or individuals).

Component Units reportedly are legally separated organizations for which the government is financially accountable. Usually fees, charges for services or goods, assessments, fines, penalties, licenses, etc. are the major revenue source.

The budget, as commonly known to the public, only involves the Governmental Funds and may not even include all of the governmental-type funds. The remainder of the Funds shown above are not part of the budget and are commonly called "off-budget" items.

2. Next year's budget consists only of next year's estimated revenues and next year's estimated expenditures. Previous years' revenues not used (spent) are normally not considered in the next year's budget, but should be. In other words, the previous years' revenues (as shown in the CAFR) are not recycled back to the budget process.

Historically, a budget consists of three parts: 1) Funds brought forward (funds not previously spent); 2) Next year's estimated revenues; and 3) Next year's estimated expenditures.

But somewhere along the way the funds brought forward category was lost. In accounting, the previous years' revenues are no longer called revenue but have been converted to Cash and Investments. Since they no longer called Revenues governments have forgotten about them to the public. They are there but not considered in the budget process, but should be.

3. The budgeted items and non-budgeted items (off budget) should be budgeted to zero (usually referred to as zero-based budgeting). In addition, the government should be on a pay-as-you-go basis, no reserves for future years. What this means is that you budget to have a zero fund balance. If you plan to spend $100 you budget for $100 with no excess or reserve allowed.

For example, the State of West Virginia Special Revenue Funds (Governmental Funds), considered part of the budget, had fund balances of $89 million in FY 2002. In FY 2003 it was $104 million. The $104 will probably not be considered in the this year's budget. The total cash and investments, funds that were not used during the current year, was $147 million (surplus) and should be part of the this year's budget. So if this year there is a "budget deficit" ask about these funds not being considered or used.

4. Budgeted expenditures should be last year's expenditures (as shown in the CAFR) with an adjustment for increase in requirements (costed out) or reductions in requirements. In most cases the CAFR expenditures are not considered in the next year's budget because the CAFR in many cases is published after next year's budget is considered and sometimes approved.

Running Surpluses is Stealing

Although taxation is legitimate, running a government surplus isn't. It represents a taking by the state, because it exceeds the government's contract with the community. It is no different than if a federal agency were to take a person's land or possessions without just compensation (an activity barred by the Fifth Amendment). Excess taxation isn't what the people bargained for.

In presuming entitlement or authority not ceded by the community, the state abrogates its moral pact with those it governs. Its power is no longer derived from the people, whose rights to liberty and property it boldly denies.

"Collecting more taxes than is absolutely necessary is legalized robbery" - Calvin Coolidge

The Governor and the Legislators

The Governor and the legislators should include in the next year's budget the previous years revenues not spent as indicated by the CAFR. These were once a revenue and should still be considered revenue for budgetary purposes.

Also, they should consider a zero-balance budget concept for all budget and non-budgetary items in the CAFR including the College and Universities and the Component Units.

Budgeted expenditures (for the budget) should be last year's expenditures (from the CAFR) adjusted for demonstrated requirement changes in project, program or services. An increase in requirements should include the costs of these additional requirements. Conversely, a decrease in requirements should result in a decrease in costs associated with the decreased requirements.

The Governor and legislators should take into consideration the entire financial condition/status of the State in the budgetary process by including all of the funds in the CAFR as being a part of the budget.

This system is covered in the CAFR Budget System. This system needs to be implemented in all governments.

If the State holds the excesses/surplus, it will earn 4% to 5% on that money. If the State returns the money to the people it will receive 20% in revenue because of the increased economic activity. This is elementary economics.

Laws need to be changed.

Every thing done by governments is by law. There are laws that state this or that regarding the use of some of the funds. Man made the laws, man can change the laws. How much effort would it be to include at the end of every law "...or if considered excess or not needed for the current operation that the funds will be refunded to the taxpayers?" See how easy it is.

At one time every law had its place, but things change. The laws need to be reviewed for change to meet the current needs of the government and the people to release these funds for use/refunded.

If this were accomplished, the State would have a huge surplus to refund (rebate or tax reductions) to the taxpayers. Such a refund would create considerable wealth and jobs, increase wages, increase State and local government revenues, dramatically increase the economy, and create the greatest economic expansion in the history of the State. Everyone wins.

If you want to know the financial condition of your government(s), do not look at the budget. Get the CAFR.

The Synergistic Magic of Economics.

What happens when the government holds the $3.83 billion.

  (In Thousands) Investment Income   Per   Capita Family of 4    
  The government holds and investments the surpluses at 4.5%. 174,454 95 381  

Here is what happens when the $3.83 billion is returned to the taxpayers (the private economy).

  (In Thousands) Surplus
Per   Capita Family of 4    
  The surplus is returned to the taxpayers. 3,832,304 2,117 8,469  
  Wages are increased. 1,916,152 1,059 4,235  
  State government revenues increase. 766,461 423 1,694  
Local government revenues increase. 613,169 339 1,355  
  Federal government revenues increase. 1,532,922 847 3,388  
  Total Benefits...   4,785 19,140  

In addition, 76,646 jobs are created. This is why it is disastrous for governments to hold excesses/reserves of the taxpayers money.

Note: The economic impact analysis is further explained at Economic Impact Analysis.

The business community suffers the most.

Before the 9-11 tragedy, President Bush and Congress provided tax rebates which averaged $427 for every American. This was to create an additional $60 billion in consumer (economic) spending, turn the economy around and create jobs for the unemployed. However, 9-11 change that.

As the above economic impact chart shows, if the State returned the $3.83 billion in surpluses to the people the State economy would grow by $4,235 per capita. That is 10 times the amount the Federal government used to stimulate the U.S. economy. Businesses net incomes could double or triple. This is elementary economics.


The WV Virginia Infrastructure and Jobs Development Council, Governmental Funds, had net expenses of $733 thousand. It also had reserves (cash and investments) of $183 million. That is 250 years of net expenses. It had actual expenses of $7 million. The reserves represents 26 years of actual expenses. That definitely is surplus, a lot of surplus.

Employment Security, an Enterprise Fund and not part of the budget, had net expenses of $84 million. But it also had cash and investment reserves of $241 million. That is 3 years of net expenses. They sure are planning to have a lot of people unemployed in West Virginia with that much surplus.

Environmental Protection, a Special Revenue Fund and part of the budget, made a profit of $34 million. It had reserves of $92 million.

Water Development Authority, a Component Unit and not part of the budget, made a profit of $2 million and had cash/investment reserves of $50 million.

These only represent four of the 46 funds shown below that had cash and investment reserves not being used.

What to do?

Unless the budget flaws are corrected and the entire State finances are used in the budget process, the problems that created the surpluses will continue to exist. The budget deficits reported by the Governor and legislatures will be used year after year for the excuses for tax increases and/or to reduce needed services.

Just stopping a tax increase or a reduction in services will not solve the problems. The problems will come back the next year.

I have provided the details of the surpluses and explained the ways the surpluses are accumulated. The data is accurate because it comes directly from the government's own financial statement, the CAFR. You must provide the where-with-all to convince the Governor and legislatures that the surpluses exist and what should be done about it. I live in Arizona. It is not my money that is at stake.

Exhibit A

The 2003 CAFR is located at:

http://www.West Virginia.gov/dpa/dfp/sco/cafr/cafr.htm

Items not Included

The following items are not included in the amount of surplus shown:

-Buildings, roads, bridges, land (not for sale), and equipment.

-Deferred compensation plans for employees. These are plans in which the employee contributes to his/her retirement over and above the normal employee retirement contribution.

-Any fund that is 100% supported by donations, bequests, gifts, endowments, etc. These are not taxpayers money.

-For Colleges and Universities. All endowment and similar-type funds should not be included as surpluses. Sometimes these funds are combined with other college/university funds. We are interested in surpluses, so in these cases the total amount should not be included.

-Funds in which the revenues/contributions are 100% held for other individuals, organizations or another government.

-Funds that are required by law in which a bank, financial institution, insurance companies, etc. are required to deposit with the government a certain amount for insurance against the entity going bankrupt. These are not taxpayers' money.

-Retirement/Pension Funds - only included are 1/2 of the actuarially determined excesses, the taxpayers portion. The other 1/2 is the government employees portion.

  Review of The State of West Virginia CAFR- FY 2003

CAFR Page Surpluses by Fund (In Thousands) Surpluses
  Governmental Fund:  
25    General Fund 445,144
25    Transportation 112,570
25    West Virginia Infrastructure and Jobs Development    Council 183,004
     Special Revenue Funds:  
146       Environmental Protection 92,138
146       School Building Authority 150
146       Public Service Commission 10,775
147       Crime Victims' Compensation 6,280
147       Insurance Commission Examiners 5,031
147       Armory Board 2,509
147       Bureau of Employment Programs 4,803
147       Wildlife Resources 24,153
147       Children's Fund 1,030
     Debt Service:  
150       School Building Authority 59,265
150       WV Infrastructure & Jobs Development Council 75
150       Education, Arts, Sciences and Tourism Fund 23,388
150       Lease Purchase Account 11,793
     Capital Projects Funds:  
140       State Road 34,562
140       School Building Authority 115,362
141       Education, Arts, Sciences, and Tourism Fund 151
141       Lease Purchase Account 53,843
     Permanent Funds:  
141       Irreducible School 1,805
141       Tobacco Settlement Medical Trust Fund 138,964
  Propriety Funds:  
     Enterprise Funds:  
30       West Virginia Lottery 50,784
30       Water Pollution 82,033
30       Workers' Compensation Funds 1,102,569
30       Employment Security 240,807
159       Board of Risk Insurance Management 77,715
159       Public Employees' Insurance Agency 119,019
159       Drinking Water Treatment Revolving Fund 6,136
159       Alcohol Beverage Control Administration 6,824
159       West Virginia Prepaid College Plan  
     Internal Service Funds:  
154       State Building Fund 19,821
154       Information Services and Communications 1,397
154       Travel Management 725
154       West Virginia Investment Management Board 3,945
  Fiduciary Funds:  
     Private Purpose Trust Fund:  
39       SMAT 529  
     Investment Trust Funds:  
169       Cash Liquidity  
169       Money Market  
171       Local Government  
171       Municipal Bond Commission  
171       Consolidated Investment Pool  
171       Other Agency  
  Component Units:  
44    Economic Development Authority 39,555
44    Housing Development Fund 225,730
44    Parkways, Economic Development, and Tourism    Authority 41,943
44    Water Development Authority 49,784
45    Higher Education 343,971
45     Regional Jail Authority 44,018
174    Educational Broadcasting Authority 1,642
174    Jobs Investment Trust 16,445
174    West Virginia State Rail Authority 1,039
175    Solid Waste Management Board 2,598
175    Racing Commission 25,451
175    Public Defenders Corporation 1,558
  Total Surpluses… 3,832,304
  Per Capita… 2,117
  Family of 4… 8,469

Note: For those familiar with governmental accounting, for surpluses we basically used GFOA Balance Sheet Account Classification Codes 101, 102, 103, 151, 153, and 170.

USAF Image

This report was prepared by:
Gerald R. Klatt
Lieutenant Colonel, USAF, Retired



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