Indiana Has At Least $11.73 Billion In Surpluses of the Taxpayers Money it is not using.

  FY 2003 Report Home Page Flags courtesy of Robesus Inc.



The State of Indiana at the State-level has approximately $11.73 billion of the taxpayer's money it is not using, i. e. surpluses equal to $1,904 for every man, woman and child in Indiana or $7,615 for a family of 4. This does not include all the additional surpluses that exist in the school districts, cities, or counties in Indiana.

The Exhibit A below shows the results of the FY 2003 review.

What are these surpluses we refer to?

Government surpluses, as used in this report, are funds that are not required or needed for the operation of all government operations, funds, accounts, agencies, etc., directly or indirectly, for the year(s) covered by the budget which is usually one year. Theoretically, at the end of every fiscal year, governments should have little or no cash/investments on hand. But what we have found is that most governments have huge amounts of cash and investments on hand at the end of the fiscal year. And somehow these cash and investments are not being recycled back through the budget process the next year, but are being held year-after-year.

A Government Can Have a Budget Deficits/Shortfalls and Financial Surpluses At The Same Time.

This is the most deceiving topic that governments, politicians, and the news media have conveyed to the public about governmental financial matters. In realty, a government can simultaneously have a budget shortfall and a financial surplus of the taxpayers' money.

The problems are focused in four areas:

1. The budget only covers a small portion of the State's financial condition. There are a group of funds not part of the budget process. The complete list of funds and budgetary requirements are found in the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR). This report depicts the complete financial status of the State. The budget only covers a portion of the financial resources of the government.

A Little Background:

The CAFR usually has four categories.

Governmental Funds
Proprietary Funds
Fiduciary Funds
Component Units

Governmental Funds involve activities of the government including most basic services such as environmental resources, general government, transportation, education, health and human services, and protection of persons and property. Most of the cost of these activities are financed by taxes, fees , and federal grants.

Proprietary Funds are used when a government charges customers for the services it provides, whether to outside customers or to other agencies with the state. For example, Enterprise Funds, a component of proprietary funds, are for activities that provide goods and services to outside (non-government) customers, which includes the general public. Fees, charges for services or goods, assessments, fines, licenses, etc. are the major revenue sources.

Fiduciary Funds are activities in which the state acts as a trustee or fiduciary to hold resources for the benefit of others. These funds are pension trust funds, investment trusts, and agency funds (which are for assets held for distribution by the government as an agent for other governmental units, other organizations, or individuals).

Component Units reportedly are legally separated organizations for which the government is financially accountable. Usually fees, charges for services or goods, assessments, fines, penalties, licenses, etc. are the major revenue source.

The budget, as commonly known to the public, only involves the Governmental Funds and may not even include all of the governmental-type funds. The remainder of the Funds shown above are not part of the budget and are commonly called "off-budget" items.

2. Next year's budget consists only of next year's estimated revenues and next year's estimated expenditures. Previous years' revenues not used (spent) are normally not considered in the next year's budget, but should be. In other words, the previous years' revenues (as shown in the CAFR) are not recycled back to the budget process.

Historically, a budget consists of three parts: 1) Funds brought forward (funds not previously spent); 2) Next year's estimated revenues; and 3) Next year's estimated expenditures.

But somewhere along the way the funds brought forward category was lost. In accounting, the previous years' revenues are no longer called revenue but have been converted to Cash and Investments. Since they no longer called Revenues governments have forgotten about them to the public. They are there but not considered in the budget process, but should be.

3. The budgeted items and non-budgeted items (off budget) should be budgeted to zero (usually referred to as zero-based budgeting). In addition, the government should be on a pay-as-you-go basis, no reserves for future years. What this means is that you budget to have a zero fund balance. If you plan to spend $100 you budget for $100 with no excess or reserve allowed.

For example, the State of Indiana Special Revenue Funds (Governmental Funds), considered part of the budget, have fund balances of $1.15 billion that probably will not be considered in the next year's budget. The total cash and investments, funds that were not used during the current year, was $1.67 billion (surplus) and should be part of the next year's budget. So if next year there is a "budget deficit" ask about these funds not being considered or used.

4. Budgeted expenditures should be last year's expenditures (as shown in the CAFR) with an adjustment for increase in requirements (costed out) or reductions in requirements. In most cases the CAFR expenditures are not considered in the next year's budget because the CAFR in many cases is published after next year's budget is considered and sometimes approved.

Running Surpluses is Stealing

Although taxation is legitimate, running a government surplus isn't. It represents a taking by the state, because it exceeds the government's contract with the community. It is no different than if a federal agency were to take a person's land or possessions without just compensation (an activity barred by the Fifth Amendment). Excess taxation isn't what the people bargained for.

In presuming entitlement or authority not ceded by the community, the state abrogates its moral pact with those it governs. Its power is no longer derived from the people, whose rights to liberty and property it boldly denies.

The Governor and the Legislators

The Governor and the legislators should include in the next year's budget the previous years revenues not spent as indicated by the CAFR. These were once a revenue and should still be considered revenue for budgetary purposes.

Also, they should consider a zero-balance budget concept for all budget and non-budgetary items in the CAFR including the College and Universities and the Component Units.

Budgeted expenditures (for the budget) should be last year's expenditures (from the CAFR) adjusted for demonstrated requirement changes in project, program or services. An increase in requirements should include the costs of these additional requirements. Conversely, a decrease in requirements should result in a decrease in costs associated with the decreased requirements.

The Governor and legislators should take into consideration the entire financial condition/status of the State in the budgetary process by including all of the funds in the CAFR as being a part of the budget.

This system is covered in the CAFR Budget System. This system needs to be implemented in all governments.

If the State holds the excesses/surplus, it will earn 4% to 5% on that money. If the State returns the money to the people it will receive 20% in revenue because of the increased economic activity. This is elementary economics.

Laws need to be changed.

Every thing done by governments is by law. There are laws that state this or that regarding the use of some of the funds. Man made the laws, man can change the laws. How much effort would it be to include at the end of every law "...or if considered excess or not needed for the current operation that the funds will be refunded to the taxpayers?" See how easy it is.

At one time every law had its place, but things change. The laws need to be reviewed for change to meet the current needs of the government and the people to release these funds for use/refunded.

If this were accomplished, the State would have a huge surplus to refund (rebate or tax reductions) to the taxpayers. Such a refund would create considerable wealth and jobs, increase wages, increase State and local government revenues, dramatically increase the economy, and create the greatest economic expansion in the history of the State. Everyone wins.

If you want to know the financial condition of your government(s), do not look at the budget. Get the CAFR.

The Synergistic Magic of Economics.

What happens when the government holds the $11.73 billion.

  (In Thousands) Investment Income   Per   Capita Family of 4    
  The government holds and investments the surpluses at 4.5%. 527,652 86 343  

Here is what happens when the $11.73 billion is returned to the taxpayers (the private economy).

  (In Thousands) Surplus
Per   Capita Family of 4    
  The surplus is returned to the taxpayers. 11,725,602 1,904 7,615  
  Wages are increased. 5,862,801 952 3,808  
  State government revenues increase. 2,345,120 381 1,523  
Local government revenues increase. 1,876,096 305 1,218  
  Federal government revenues increase. 4,690,241 762 3,046  
  Total Benefits...   4,303 17,210  

In addition, 234,512 jobs are created. In FY 2002 there was 163,000 unemployed. This means there would be a labor shortage in Indiana. This is why it is disastrous for governments to hold excesses/reserves of the taxpayers money.

Note: The economic impact analysis is further explained at Economic Impact Analysis.

The business community suffers the most.

Before the 9-11 tragedy, President Bush and Congress provided tax rebates which averaged $427 for every American. This was to create an additional $60 billion in consumer (economic) spending, turn the economy around and create jobs for the unemployed. However, 9-11 change that.

As the above economic impact chart shows, if the State returned the $11.73 billion in surpluses to the people the State economy would grow by $3,808 per capita. That is 9 times the amount the Federal government used to stimulate the U.S. economy. Businesses net incomes could double or triple. This is elementary economics.


Toll Roads, an Enterprise Fund and not part of the budget, made a profit of $16 million. It also had reserves (cash and investments) of $195 million.

State Revolving Fund, also an Enterprise Fund and not part of the budget, made a profit of $17 million. But it also had cash and investment reserves of $871 million.

Adminstrative Services Revolving Fund had net expenditures of $555 thousand. It also had cash reserves of $25 million. That equals 46 years of reserves.

Other Non-Major Special Revenue Funds, not individually itemized and part of the budget, made a profit of $105 million . These funds had reserves of $1.1 billion. I bet you these reserves will not be included in the next year's budget.

These only represent four of the 53 funds shown below that had cash and investment reserves not being used.

What to do?

Unless the budget flaws are corrected and the entire State finances are used in the budget process, the problems that created the surpluses willl continue to exist. The budget deficits reported by the Governor and legislatures will be used year after year for the excuses for tax increases and/or to reduce needed services.

Just stopping a tax increase or a reduction in services will not solve the problems. The problems will come back the next year.

I have provided the details of the surpluses and explained the ways the surpluses are accumulated. The data is accurate because it comes directly from the government's own financial statement, the CAFR. You must provide the where-with-all to convince the Governor and legislatures that the surpluses exist and what should be done about it. I live in Arizona. It is not my money that is at stake.

Exhibit A

The 2003 CAFR is located at:

Items not Included

The following items are not included in the amount of surplus shown:

-Buildings, roads, bridges, land (not for sale), and equipment.

-Deferred compensation plans for employees. These are plans in which the employee contributes to his/her retirement over and above the normal employee retirement contribution.

-Any fund that is 100% supported by donations, bequests, gifts, endowments, etc. These are not taxpayers money.

-For Colleges and Universities. All endowment and similar-type funds should not be included as surpluses. Sometimes these funds are combined with other college/university funds. We are interested in surpluses, so in these cases the total amount should not be included.

-Funds in which the revenues/contributions are 100% held for other individuals, organizations or another government.

-Funds that are required by law in which a bank, financial institution, insurance companies, etc. are required to deposit with the government a certain amount for insurance against the entity going bankrupt. These are not taxpayers' money.

-Retirement/Pension Funds - only included are 1/2 of the actuarially determined excesses, the taxpayers portion. The other 1/2 is the government employees portion.

  Review of The State of Indiana CAFR- FY 2003

CAFR Page List of Investments By Fund (In thousands) Surpluses Notes
  Governmental Funds:    
26    General Fund 2,544,137  
26    Motor Vehicle Highway Fund    
26    Medicaid Assistance 42,555  
26    Build Indiana Fund 16,896  
26    State Highway Department 229,241  
26    Property Tax Replacement Fund    
26    Tobacco Settlement Fund 336,486  
     Non-Major Special Revenue Funds:    
112       County Welfare Administration    
112       State Gaming Fund 61,738  
112       State and Federal Welfare Assistance 50,467  
112       Bureau of Motor Vehicles Commission 9,722  
112       Health and Environmental Programs 29,741  
113       Patients Compensation 74,002  
113       Student Loan Program 17,626  
113       Primary Road and Street 4,242  
113       Federal Food Stamp Program 1  
113       Bureau of Motor Vehicles Holding Account 8,745  
113       Medicaid Indigent Care Trust 270,296  
113       Other Non-Major Special Revenue Funds 1,133,470  
     Non-Major Capital Projects Funds:    
116       Army National Guard Construction 63  
116       Post War Construction 50,208  
116       Other Non-Major Capital Project Funds: 36,160  
     Non-Major Permanent Funds:    
118       Common School Principal 223,206  
118       Veterans' Memorial School Construction 1,034  
118       Other Non-Major Permanent Funds 3,034  
  Proprietary Funds:    
     Enterprise Funds:    
34       Toll Roads 194,801  
34       Transportation Finance Authority Aviation Technology       Bonds 373  
34       Transporation Finance Authority Airport Facilities Bonds 1,311  
34       State Revolving Fund 870,667  
35       Unemployment Compensation Fund 968,375  
35       State Lottery Commission 125,478  
35       Other Enterprise Funds: 32,968  
     Internal Service Funds:    
130       Institutional Industries 1,814  
130       Administrative Service Revolving 25,348  
130       Transportation Finance Authority Highway Bonds 54,833  
130       State Office Building Commission 157,957  
131       Recreational Development Commission 7,394  
131       State Police Health Insurance Funds 4,422  
131       State Employee Disability Fund 1,985  
131       State Employee Health Insurance Fund 45,729  
  Fiduciary Funds:    
     Pension Trust Funds    
140    Private-Purpose Trust Funds:    
142       Property Custody Fund    
142       Abandoned Property Fund 6,117  
142       Unclaimed Funds Fund    
     Agency Funds    
142       Employee Payroll, Withholding and Benefit Funds    
144       Local Distribution Fund    
144       Child Support Fund    
144       Department of Insurance Fund    
144       Other Agency Funds 14,299  
  Component Units:    
44       Indiana Development Finance Authority 44,940  
44       Indiana Bond Bank 108,336  
44       Indiana Housing Finance Authority 324,174  
     Non-major Component Units:    
        Propriety Funds:    
148          Secondary Market for Education Loans, Inc. 60,214  
148          Board for Public Depositories 609,098  
     Colleges and Universities:    
46       Indiana University 844,180 1
46       Purdue University 1,637,306 1
        Non-major Colleges and Universities:    
150          Vincennes University 68,146 1
150          Indiana State University 87,916 1
150          Ball State University 163,114 1
150          Ivy Tech State College 68,535 1
150          University of Southern Indiana 40,896 1
  Total Surplus… 11,725,602  
  Per Capita… 1,904  
  Family of 4… 7,615  

The surpluses in the college and universities area may contain endowment and similar funds. These should be excluded from the surpluses.


Note: For those familiar with governmental accounting, for surpluses we basically used GFOA Balance Sheet Account Classification Codes 101, 102, 103, 151, 153, and 170.

USAF Image

This report was prepared by:
Gerald R. Klatt
Lieutenant Colonel, USAF, Retired



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